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Common Invasive Plants of Concern along Streams in Monroe County, PA

Common Name Scientific name Control Methods* link to more info Alternatives to plant* Vegetation** : click for larger picture Flower**: click for larger picture
Garlic Mustard
Alliaria petiolata
hand removal to roots, cutting 2nd year plants before flowering, herbicides
wild ginger, lady fern, evergreen wood fern, foam flower, creeping phlox, New York fern
Garlic mustard, 1st year rosette
spring flowers of garlic mustard
Japanese Barberry Berberis thunbergii
small plants pulled by hand (use gloves).  Larger bushes should be clipped to base, then base and roots removed with pickax when soil is moist.  Herbicides glyphosate and triclopyr also effective.
sweet pepperbush, spicebush, northern bayberry, pasture rose, highbush blueberry, swamp rose
Japanese barberry bush in fall color
close-up of barberry leaf
Japanese Stiltgrass
Microstegium vimineum
identification important to avoid removing natives.  Pull (including roots) for small infestations, herbicides for extensive infestations.
plant native grasses
Japanese stiltgrass.  Note silver "stripe" down center of leaf

Japanese Knotweed
Polygonum cuspidatum
difficult!!! Small infestations pulled by hand, including roots & runners.  Herbicides: Glyphosate and triclopyr to cut stems or foliage.
sweet pepperbush, Virginia sweetspire, maleberry, silky dogwood, fragrant or shining sumac
Patch of Japanese knotweed along Crescent Lake Road
Flowering branch of Japanese Knotweed
Multiflora Rose
Rosa multiflora
Young plants pulled by hand.  Mature plants controlled through frequent, repeated cutting.  Contact and systemic herbicides also effective.  Biological controls: rose-rosette disease spread by mites and wasps.
common blackberry, flowering raspberry, pasture rose, swamp rose
Multiflora rose growing along Cherry Creek, Monroe County, PA
Flowering branch of multiflora rose
Common reed
Phragmites australis
Dig up entire plant, including root system or it will re-sprout.
native wetland plants (sedges, grasses and rushes)
Phragmites australis along Sullivan Trail, Monroe County, PA
Phragmites growing along Brodhead River, Monroe Co., PA
Purple Loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
Small infestations may be hand pulled, before seed set.  For extensive infestations in wetlands us Rodeo.  Biological control  by beetles most effective for long-term control
Joe Pye weed, cardinal flower, New York ironweed, blazing star or gayfeather, obedient plant, blue vervain
Purple loosestrife growing along Brodhead Creek, Monroe Co., PA
Purple loosestrife flower
Spotted Knapweed
Centaurea
maculosa
(syn. C. biebersteinii)

hand pulled for small infestations (crown & taproot).  Herbicides for larger infestations, but may need to be repeated.  Be careful to clean tools and shoes to avoid spreading.
plant native vegetation appropriate to site and conditions
Whole young knapweed with tap root

* = Information from Swearingen, J., K. Reshetiloff, B. Slattery, and S. Zwicker. 202. Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas. National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 82 pp.
** = Pictures taken by Jerilyn Jewett-Smith, with an Olympus Stylus 300 digital camera.

Other informational links for invasive identification, eradication and alternative plantings. (Caution: these are pdf files and may take some time to download.)

USDA Invasive Plants Field and Reference Guide

Citizen's Guide to the Control of Invasive Plants in Wetland and Riparian Areas

PA Guide to Invasive Riparian Plants

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P.O. Box 339 Henryville, PA 18332 - Phone: (570) 839-1120